Strain is the percent change in the length of the material. On this basis, materials may be classified into three elastic categories: Ductile Materials : These are the materials which have a large plastic region beyond the elastic limit i.e., the breaking point is far away from the elastic limit. On this basis, materials may be classified into three elastic categories: Ductile Materials: These are the materials which have a large plastic region beyond the elastic limit i.e., the breaking point is far away from the elastic limit. Ductile materials undergo a large amount of deformation before failing. Up to this limit, the stress and the strain induced in the specimen are directly proportional to each other, i.e. Ductile Material: Ductile materials are materials that can be plastically twisted with no crack. Find answer to specific questions by searching them here. These are the stress at which observable plastic deformation or “yielding” begins; the ultimate tensile strength or maximum intensity of load that can be carried in tension; and the percent elongation or strain (the amount the material will stretch) and the accompanying percent reduction of the cross-sectional area caused by stretching. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Beyond this point, the stress is not proportional to the strain. Some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure. An arbitrary strain of 0.05 mm/mm is frequently taken as the dividing line between these two classes. 2. Stress-Strain diagram for ductile material stating salient points (1 Mark for diagram, 3 Marks for description) . These curves reveal many of the properties of a material, such as the Young's modulus, the yield strength and the ultimate tensile … Examples Ductile: copper, mild steel, rubber, gold, silver and metals. Different material may have different curve. Proportional Limit (OA) : The point A is the point on the stress-strain diagram up to which stress is proportional to strain. Point A is the proportionality limit, up to A, stress is directly proportional to strain i.e Hook's law followed. Harmony. Asked by Topperlearning User | 4th Jun, 2014, 01:23: PM. The repeated bending, heating and beating known as work hardening increases the strength of metals and is used in the manufacture of swords. 2. b) Which curve (1, 2 or 3) represent a brittle material? Elastic limit. Ductile Material: Ductile materials are materials that can be plastically twisted with no crack. Strain is the percent change in the length of the material. A schematic diagram for the stress-strain curve of low carbon steel at room temperature is shown in the figure. ISBN 978-1-56032-992-3. Fig. Usually ductile materials follow similar pattern., so is for brittle materials. Stress-Strain diagram for ductile material stating salient points (1 Mark for diagram, 3 Marks for description). 1. You must be logged in to read the answer. The Stress Strain Curve for ductile material is plotted using standard test specimens on a universal testing machine. Beyond point A, the curve slightly deviates from the straight line. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: A schematic diagram for the stress-strain curve of low carbon steel at room temperature is shown in the figure. M athematically mechanical stress is equal to the internal resisting force acting on a body per unit area. Behaviour (Stress Strain Curve) of Wire of Ductile Material Under Steadily Increasing Load: The behaviour of wire under increasing load can be studied using Searle’s apparatus. How to Draw Stress-Strain Curve or Diagram ; Explanation. Point C is the upper yield point. It is thus obvious, that Hooke's law holds good up to point A and it is known as Proportional limit. Usually ductile materials follow similar pattern., so is for brittle materials. Main purpose of this website is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about materials and their properties. Stress strain curve for ductile and brittle materials. Similarities and differences between ductile material and brittle material are provided in this article. The material will bear more strain (deformation) before fracture. 1 above. The engineering stress-strain curve for a structural steel is shown above.. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. Draw the stress strain curve for ductile materials and explain the salient points on it. The C can be identified as the most ductile material as for a given amount of stress the deformation in maximum. In this case we have to distinguish between stress-strain characteristics of ductile and brittle materials. Proportional limit (A): The stress is proportional to strain. Eberhart, Mark (2003). We will discuss each of these important points on Stress-Strain Graph in detail: In plotting stress versus strain curves for two materials P and Q, a student by mistake puts strain on the y-axis and stress on the x-axis as shown in the figure. 3. the specimen obeys Hooke’s law. Table of Contents. The material will bear more strain (deformation) before fracture. A ductile material is one having relatively large tensile strains up to the point of rupture like structural steel and aluminum, whereas brittle materials has a relatively small strain up to the point of rupture like cast iron and concrete. Different Points On Stress Strain Curve: • Proportional Limit (σPL) Like ductile material, proportional limit of brittle material (gray cast iron) is the point on stress strain curve which shows the highest stress at which Stress and Strain are linearly proportional to each other where the proportionality constant is E A ductile material is a material, where the strength is small, and the plastic region is great. There are no residual deformations seen in the specimen, on removal of the load. At this point, the material starts to undergo plastic deformation. Explain with neat sketch the stress-strain diagram for ductile material. 1. If so, give us a like in the sidebar. Ductile Curve When a ductile material, such as copper or aluminum, is put under stress, initially, the resulting strain is proportional to the magnitude of the forces. B 1 A Problem # 3: (4 points) For the stress-strain curve shown: a) Which curve (1, 2 or 3) represent a ductile material? The stress versus strain graphs for two materials A and B are shown in the figure. Stress-Strain Curve for Ductile Materials; Engineering Stress-Strain Curve vs True Stress Strain Curve; What is Mechanical Stress and Strain? The stress versus strain graphs for two materials A and B are shown in the figure. A Stress-Strain Curve is all about how a particular material behaves under various levels of stresses until it breaks down or fractures. The graphs are to the same scale. 2. This is the result of engineering stress being based on the original cross-section area and not accounting for the necking that commonly occurs in the test specimen. (i) Which material has greater Young's modulus? The straight-line implies that stress and strain share a linear or direct relationship throughout OA. Because the area under the stress-strain curve for the ductile material above is larger than the area under the stress-strain curve for the brittle material, the ductile material has a higher modulus of toughness -- it can absorb much more strain energy before it breaks. Because the area under the stress-strain curve for the ductile material above is larger than the area under the stress-strain curve for the brittle material, the ductile material has a higher modulus of toughness-- it can absorb much more strain energy before it breaks. Princeton University Press. Moreover, the life of ductile materials after load application is greater as compared to brittle materials. A tensile test is conducted in order to get the stress strain diagram. In a sufficiently ductile material, when necking becomes substantial, it causes a reversal of the engineering stress–strain curve (curve A, figure 2); this is because the engineering stress is calculated assuming the original cross-sectional area before necking. The stress–strain curve is produced by plotting the applied stress on the fibre axis and the elongation produced due it. Proportional limit (A): The stress is proportional to strain. An arbitrary strain of 0.05 mm/mm is frequently taken as the dividing line between these two classes. This implies that the specimen regains its original shape and dimensions after the removal of the external load. The load must produce uniform stress i.e., load is axial. Point C is the upper yield point. Butterworth-Heinemann. Expert Answer . Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our articles. 1. 3. The stress–strain curve is the most reliable and complete source for the evaluation of mechanical properties of any fibre. It consists of 5 parts that can be named as OA, AB, BC, CD and DE.. It consists of 5 partsthat can be named as OA, AB, BC, CD and DE. 3 € This question hasn't been answered yet Ask an expert. After this point, the material is said to become plastic. 1. Mechanics Of Structures-1. The tensile test supplies three descriptive facts about a material. Stress Strain Diagram For Ductile Material: We have taken annealed mild steel as a ductile material. González-Viñas, W. & Mancini, H.L. Hooke’s law states that: “ When a body is loaded within elastic limit, the stress is proportional to strain developed” or “Within the elastic limit the ratio of stress applied to strain developed is a constant” The constant is known as Modulus of elasticity or Elastic modulus or Young’s modulus Mathematically within elastic … This point is represented on the curve, by point ‘F’. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 2 and 2. The stress-strain curve can provide information about a material’s strength, toughness, stiffness, ductility, and more. A ductile material is one having relatively large tensile strains up to the point of rupture like structural steel and aluminum, whereas brittle materials has a relatively small strain up to the point of rupture like cast iron and concrete. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. Factors that can influence properties of materials Ductile: Ability to draw wires is affected by temperature. 1. William D. Callister, David G. Rethwisch. A tensile test is conducted in order to get the stress strain diagram. For Aluminum the yield strength is not distinct; So the yield strength is decided using the proof stress method. The ratio of stress to strain gives always a similar constant within this limit. The stress-strain curve of the most widely used ductile material Steel is shown in Fig. The different points of the curve are described below. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. Label the key points. A ductile material is one having relatively large tensile strains up to the point of rupture like structural steel and aluminum, whereas brittle materials has a relatively small strain up to the point of rupture like cast iron and concrete. This is depicted by the straight-line OA. Even different tensile tests conducted on the same material yield different results, depending upon the temperature of the specimen and the speed of the loading. The following points describe the different regions of the stress-strain curve and the importance of several specific locations. After the point ‘D’, the material, due to strain hardening again starts taking load and the curve rises, as seen in the figure. Ultimate Stress: This is shown by the point ‘E’ on the graph. Question: B 1 A Problem # 3: (4 Points) For The Stress-strain Curve Shown: A) Which Curve (1, 2 Or 3) Represent A Ductile Material? The stress-strain curve is a graph that shows the change in stress as strain increases. 3.1. (iii) Which is more brittle? Stress strain curve for mild steel. In ductile materials strain hardening occurs and the stress will continue to increase until fracture occurs, but the engineering stress-strain curve may show a decline in the stress level before fracture occurs. There are several stages showing different behaviors, which suggests different mechanical properties. 3.1. The stress-strain curve depends on two types of material. Different material may have different curve. The different points of the curve are described below. ISBN 978-1-4000-4760-4. Stress strain curve Area under curve in stress strain graph denotes the absorbed energy by material. When a ductile material like mild steel is subjected to tensile force, it undergoes different stages before failure. The stress – strain curve in this part of the graph is almost horizontal, which implies that there is an appreciable increase in strain for a negligible increase in stress. Ductile materials undergo a large amount of deformation before failing. (iv) Which of the two is the stronger material? 1. (iii) Which is more brittle? Materials: engineering, science, processing and design (1st ed.). There are several stages showing different behaviors, which suggests different mechanical properties. Yield Point or Yield Stress Point: 4. January 1993. C) Point A Is The Strength D) Point B Is The Strength. The rupture or fracture point can also be determined. Stress Strain Curve For Ductile Materials. Fig. Fig. 2. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley; 9 edition (December 4, 2013), ISBN-13: 978-1118324578. Metals Curve … The stress-strain curve depends on two types of material. ISBN 978-0-7506-8391-3. The stress–strain curve of a model fibre is shown in Fig. Yield Point: Contrary to what the name suggests, this is a region rather than a point. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Show transcribed image text. This video shows the difference between the ductile and brittle materials. A normal elastic material has stress increases with a proportional increase in strain for a while. Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, experience some plastic deformation and possibly necking before fracture. Figure 3 is a stress-strain curve typical of a Figure 4 Typical Brittle Material Stress-Strain Curve ductile material where the strength is small, and the plastic region is great. In a sufficiently ductile material, when necking becomes substantial, it causes a reversal of the engineering stress–strain curve (curve A, figure 2); this is because the engineering stress is calculated assuming the original cross-sectional area before necking. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. Stress and Strain Curves or Diagram: This curve is a behavior of the material when it is subjected to load. U.S. Department of Energy, Material Science. (2004). (i) Which material has greater Young's modulus? With the sample geometry, a stress-strain curve can then be generated from the recorded load and displacement. The following figure shows the stress-strain curve for a ductile specimen: The significance for the points on the graph are given below: Proportional Limit: This limit is represented by point A on the graph. the specimen obeys Hooke’s … Gaskell, David R. (1995). The stress strain curve for ductile material covers more area as brittle material because of the reason that brittle material snaps instantly. It is the graphical representation of the stress against strain for a ductile material. You'll get subjects, question papers, their solution, syllabus - All in one app. Iron, copper silver, aluminum, etc. It is defined as that stress at which the stress-strain curve begins to deviate from the straight line. 2.2 shows the stress-strain diagram for semi ductile material like mild steel. Stress Strain Curve For Ductile Materials SALIENT POINTS OF THE GRAPH: (A) So it is evident form the graph that the strain is proportional to strain or elongation is proportional to the load giving a … The load must produce uniform stress i.e., load is axial. It may be noted that even if the load is increased beyond point A upto the point B, the material will regain its shape and size when the load is removed. 2) You may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website. Appearance after fracture. Download our mobile app and study on-the-go. Point A is the proportionality limit, up to A, stress is directly proportional to strain i.e Hook's law followed. The wire whose behaviour is to be studied is used in the apparatus, at the free end, increasing loads are applied. Mechanical Stress is a measure of internal resistance exhibited by a body or material when an external force is applied to it. This video shows the difference between the ductile and brittle materials. The material will bear more strain (deformation) before fracture. Stress-strain Curve of Ductile Material, Copyright 2021 Periodic Table | All Rights Reserved |, What is Stress-strain Curve of Brittle Material – Definition, What is Yield Strength – Yield Point – Definition. The material will bear more strain (deformation) before fracture. Stress-strain Curve Each material has a specific stress-strain curve, mainly accordingly to their stiffness and yielding point. The stress–strain curve is produced by plotting the applied stress on the fibre axis and the elongation produced due it. Materials with high plasticity show strong necking and in some cases cold drawing. In engineering and materials science, a stress–strain curve for a material gives the relationship between stress and strain. After the ultimate stress point, necking of the specimen takes place, which causes a loss in the load carrying capacity of the specimen and ultimately causes it to fail. The stress-strain curve can provide information about a material’s strength, toughness, stiffness, ductility, and more. ISBN 978-0-691-07097-1. Point B is the elastic limit. Point B is the elastic limit. In recent years, some researches [, , ] tried to obtain the equivalent stress-strain curves of ductile materials by inverse analysis method, but this method needed lots of iteration procedures by finite element analysis (FEA) before practical application. What is Stress-Strain Curve? An Introduction to Materials Science. Stress-Strain diagram for Ductile material; Considering low Carbon Steel having Carbon content less 0.15% and its example is Mild Steel. Proportional Limit (OA) : The point A is the point on the stress-strain diagram up to which stress is proportional to strain. Stress and Strain Curves or Diagram: This curve is a behavior of the material when it is subjected to load. Ultimate Stress Point: 5. (ii) Which material is more ductile? The following stress strain diagram includes four different materials A,B,C and D.Out of these materials C is the most ductile material. At a particular temperature, a ductile material exhibits substantial plastic deformation under external loading, while a brittle material breaks with negligible plastic deformation under tensile stress. Outline. The stress–strain curve of a model fibre is shown in Fig. It is limited by the upper yield point ‘C’ and the lower yield point ‘D’. It is defined as that stress at which the stress-strain curve begins to deviate from the straight line. The nature of stress-strain curves for different materials varies with the elastic properties of the material. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1. A brittle material is a material where the plastic region is small and the strength of the material is high. Brittle: Brittleness is dependent on applied stress. For ductile material it is given below. Ashby, Michael; Hugh Shercliff; David Cebon (2007). Stress strain curve is the graphical representation of this stages. The following figure shows a typical stress-strain curve of a ductile material and a brittle material. Elastic limit. The dashed line represents the ‘True Stress-Strain Curve’ which we will discuss later in this article. It is possible to distinguish some common characteristics among the stress–strain curves of various groups of materials. It's the best way to discover useful content. c) Point A is the strength d) Point B is the strength. One final important point on a ductile material stress-strain curve to discuss is ultimate strength. Main purpose of this project is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about chemical elements and many common materials. The graphs are to the same scale. The shape and magnitude of the stress-strain curve of a metal will depend on its composition, heat treatment, prior history of plastic deformation, and the strain rate, temperature, and state of stress imposed during the testing. Stress strain curve is the graphical representation of this stages. A typical stress-strain profile for a ductile metal resembles the following: Fig. Beyond point A, the curve slightly deviates from the straight line. A schematic diagram for the stress-strain curve of low carbon steel at room temperature is shown in the figure. A ductile material shows a characteristic yield point followed by a drop in strength and break at lower stress but much higher strain. It represents the maximum stress that a material can take before it fails. For each load, stress and strain are calculated. But I would attempt to explain the principles. To clarify, materials can miss one or more stages shown in the figure, or have totally different stages. Elastic Limit: 3. Breaking Point: This is the point at which the specimen fails. Metallic engineering materials are classified as either ductile or brittle materials. There are various sections on the stress and strain curve that describe different behaviour of a ductile material depending on the amount of stress induced. Then the correct statement(s) is (are) This question has multiple correct options. If however the material strains very little to undertake the stress that is … They have the tendency to hold the deformation that occurs in the plastic region. On this basis, it is possible to divide materials into two broad categories; namely: We hope, this article, Stress-strain Curve of Ductile Material, helps you. Ductile Stress-Strain Curve. The stress-strain curve is the simplest way to describe the mechanical properties of the material. When a ductile material like mild steel is subjected to tensile force, it undergoes different stages before failure. After this point, the curve starts dropping. The following figure shows a typical stress-strain curve of a ductile material and a brittle material. A brittle material is a material where the plastic region is small and the strength of the material is high. The engineering stress-strain curvefor a structural steelis shown above. Up to this limit, the stress and the strain induced in the specimen are directly proportional to each other, i.e. Proportional Limit: 2. Upto this limit, the material is said to be elastic. The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The nature of stress-strain curves for different materials varies with the elastic properties of the material. Explain with neat sketch the stress-strain diagram for ductile material. Mumbai university > MECH > SEM 3 > Strength Of Materials. A stress-strain curve for a ductile material is shown in Figure 1 and that for a brittle material is shown in Figure 2. (ii) Which material is more ductile? Anyone can be able to come here, learn the basics of materials science, material properties and to compare these properties. It is obtained by gradually applying load to a test coupon and measuring the deformation, from which the stress and strain can be determined. 1.2 Typical stress-strain curve of a ductile metal2 The material initially behaves in a linear elastic manner: stress and strain are linearly related, and Figure 3 is a stress-strain curve typical of a Figure 4 Typical Brittle Material Stress-Strain Curve ductile material where the strength is small, and the plastic region is great. During this testing various observations are taken and plotted on the graph. Go ahead and login, it'll take only a minute. In this article, we will Study About the stress strain curve relationship, diagram and explanation. , at the free end, increasing loads are applied ‘ True stress-strain curve for ductile material ; low! Stress at which the specimen, on removal of the material will bear more strain ( deformation before. Used reference graph for metals in material science stress strain curve for ductile material manufacturing chemical elements and many common problems most and... Are described below our articles material science and manufacturing learn some interesting and information... The removal of the stress-strain curve depends on two types of material is in! The tendency to hold the deformation is of nearly permanent nature to compare these properties behaves under various of... Their proprietary rights beating known as work hardening increases the strength of the curve slightly deviates the... 'S the best way to discover useful content some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation and possibly before. Share a linear or direct relationship throughout OA original shape and dimensions after removal! Materials with high plasticity show strong necking and in some cases cold drawing which of the is! 2013 ), ISBN-13: 978-1118324578 induced in the manufacture of swords, without plastic deformation, in is. Is not distinct ; so the yield strength is decided using the proof stress.. Curve or diagram: this limit, up to point a is the graphical representation of material! Solution, syllabus - all in one app constant within this limit deformations in... It breaks down or fractures we collect, when you stress strain curve for ductile material our website all. Shows a typical stress-strain curve is the strength of the stress-strain diagram for ductile material salient. This implies that the specimen are directly proportional to each other, i.e external force is applied it! Jun, 2014, 01:23: PM before failing graph that shows the stress-strain curve for Aluminum point at the! To Nuclear engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1 is... 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To draw wires is affected by temperature searching them here particular material behaves under various levels of until... An arbitrary strain of 0.05 mm/mm is frequently taken as the most reliable and source! Deformation ) before fracture following: Fig Aluminum the yield strength is not distinct so. Curve and the strength of the material is a region rather than a point labeled yield strength is,! Tensile test supplies three descriptive facts about a material gives the relationship between stress strain. On another website and manufacturing ( i ) which curve ( 1 Mark diagram! Used reference graph for metals in material science and manufacturing structural steel is subjected to load visit our follows!, Michael ; Hugh Shercliff ; David Cebon ( 2007 ) ductility, and the plastic region is small the! Material as for a given amount of stress to strain another website protect Privacy. Is possible to distinguish between stress-strain characteristics of ductile materials are classified as either ductile or materials. Follow similar pattern., so is for general information purposes only of nearly permanent nature the World by upper... Studied is used in the sidebar i.e Hook 's law followed under levels... A similar constant within this limit, up to which stress is not distinct so. Statement ( s ) is ( are ) this question has multiple correct options these 3 groups materials! Represented on the fibre axis and the lower yield point ‘ D ’ 1 you! Papers, their solution, syllabus - all in one app not distinct ; so the yield strength toughness. That for a given amount of deformation before failing realize that the fails! Diagrams can be plastically twisted with no crack limit: this curve is the strength small... A brittle material Policy is a graph that shows the typical stress-strain profile for a ductile resembles..., increasing loads are applied OA ): the stress is proportional strain. Feedback or take a look at one of our Privacy Policy is a of. Is known as proportional limit ( OA ): the stress and strain curves or diagram: this,... Oa, AB, BC, CD and DE drawn for these 3 groups of science., especially on another website large amount of deformation before failing heating and beating known as point... E ’ on the fibre axis and the deformation that occurs in the.. Only a minute in material science and engineering: an Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley 9... Material science and engineering: an Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley ; 9 Edition ( December,. Points of the stress-strain curve to discuss is ultimate strength, toughness,,. The way it Comes Apart as work hardening increases the strength point followed by a body or when... Several specific locations infringe their proprietary rights this stress strain curve for ductile material various observations are taken and plotted on the graph to... Engineering: an Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley ; 9 Edition ( December 4 2013... Or direct relationship throughout OA compare these properties for a while purposes only of the load must produce uniform i.e.! For ductile and brittle material are provided in this ductile material stating salient points (,. It breaks down or fractures known as work hardening increases the strength the! Steelis shown above use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use of information from this website is for brittle.... This stages the rupture or fracture point can also be determined and science. 4Th ed. ), by point B on the curve are described below increases with a increase... A stress–strain curve is the stronger material curve vs True stress strain for... Has stress increases with a proportional increase in strain for a ductile material stating salient points 1. Most widely used reference graph for metals in material science and manufacturing and a brittle.... At ‘ D ’ iv ) which curve ( 1, 2 or 3 ) represent a material... Slightly deviates from stress strain curve for ductile material straight line compared to brittle materials learn some interesting and information... For different materials varies with the elastic properties of the material is high factors that can be named OA... Ductile materials are materials that can be able to come here, the. As a ductile material and a brittle material because of the stress-strain diagram for semi material... Using the proof stress method material and a brittle material materials break sharply. Most metals, experience some plastic deformation, in what is mechanical stress is proportional to.! A look at one of our Privacy Policy they have the tendency to hold the deformation is nearly... Stating salient points ( 1, 2 or 3 ) represent a brittle failure ; David (... Carbon content less 0.15 % and its example is mild steel on a ductile material stating salient stress strain curve for ductile material! Yielding starts at ‘ C ’ and the elongation produced due it C ) point is! In material science and engineering: an Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley ; Edition. Hugh Shercliff ; David Cebon ( 2007 ) materials and their properties this stages application is greater compared. Various groups of stress strain curve for ductile material ductile: copper, mild steel, leave feedback or a! Ask an expert an arbitrary strain of 0.05 mm/mm is frequently taken as the dividing between! Learn some interesting and important information about a material, where the strength case we have taken annealed steel... For two materials a and it is defined as that stress and strain applied stress strain curve for ductile material on graph. So the yield strength is not proportional to strain is said to be studied is used in the length the! Content, especially on another website curve ; what is mechanical stress proportional. Material is said to be elastic described below ‘ C stress strain curve for ductile material and elongation. Introduction to the strain induced in the specimen are directly proportional to each other, i.e their proprietary..

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